That funding for research is primarily government or private foundation that private industry then moves forward with investors. The amounts touted by Big Pharma are, at best, inflated when it comes to bringing drugs to market. Here is a counter to the Pilot editorial:
The COVID vaccine was protected from risk by more taxpayer monies. Considering vaccine development has fizzled in the face of drugs for chronic diseases that are much more profitable, perhaps we should wonder why we are paying twice, and much higher rates at retail to boot, for all drugs. That is, when does the taxpayer get a return on his investments?