It’s a good question.
In many kingdoms of the ancient world, taxes were a type of rent. The king owned all the land and everything in it. Subjects paid taxes to use the land and its resources. The king, in turn, raised an army to protect his subjects and invested in public works. It was a simple formula, but one sufficient to sustain a basic legal system and a generally free market for exchange.
Modern nations have for the most part replaced monarchial ownership with private property. Kings also have been replaced by governments of various types. As a result, the ultimate justification for taxes has become obscure.
Of course, modern nations still must raise armies and fund public works. But these requirements do not in themselves justify tax collection. A king could charge rent as a right of ownership. Where is a government’s right to charge rent for things it doesn’t own?
More to the point, why should a government collect taxes at all when it can simply create new money at will?
I have an answer in mind. It involves keeping money and goods in some sort of balance so that prices don’t fluctuate due to changes in the quantity of money. But as simple as the answer is to state, such a rule would be nearly impossible to implement. It would need at a minimum an inhumanly virtuous government.